Haldimand, Sir Frederick


Haldimand, Sir Frederick
(1718-1791)
   Hd Descent and birth, 1-3; antagonism to French nation, 3; joins Prussian army, 3; previous military service, 5; present at battle of Mollwitz, 6; his admiration for the king of Prussia, 6; recommended to command of second battalion, Royal American regiment, 9; stationed at Philadelphia, 11; sent to Albany and afterwards to southern colonies to recruit, 13; but slightly acquainted with the English language, 15; popular in the military profession, 15; resemblance to George Washington, 15; exchanges to fourth battalion of Royal Americans, 17; joins expedition against Canada, 17; wounded at Ticonderoga (Carillon), 21; in correspondence with General Gage, 22, 23; in command at Fort Edward, 22; marches to Oswego, 25; repulses attack of French under La Corne de St. Luc, 26; yields precedence at Niagara to Sir W. Johnson, 27; returns to Oswego, 27; builds block-houses, 32; makes vegetable gardens for benefit of his troops, 33; joins in attack on Fort de Lévis, 36; ordered to take possession of one of the gates of Montreal, 38; demands the French flags, 39; remains two years at Montreal under Gage, 40; succeeds Burton at Three Rivers, 42; promoted to rank of colonel in British army, 42; becomes British subject, 42; divides government of Three Rivers into four districts, 43; his proclamations, 45; his relations with Murray, 49; with his nephew, 50; his land purchases, 50, 51; on Burton's return to Montreal, 53; again at Three Rivers, 53; suppresses irregular trading with Indians, 54; difficulties of his position, 60; obtains leave of absence and visits England, 61; transferred to Florida, 63; unpleasant relations with Governor Johnstone, 65, 73; improves conditions for the troops, 66-69; lays out gardens, 71; tries to promote agriculture among Indian tribes, 72; surveys Mobile River and Bay, 77, 78; transferred to St. Augustine, 78; his farm of Mon Plaisir, 78; sent back to Pensacola, 80; his position pecuniarily burdensome, 82, 87; made major and placed in command at New York, 83; his attitude in relation to colonial trouble, 84, 85; visits relatives in Pennsylvania, 87; relations with Governor Tryon, 89; his views on employment of troops in Indian and civil disturbances, 89, 90, 92; foresees civil war, 98; summoned by Gage to Boston, 102; his property in New York stolen or destroyed, 103; recalled to England, 105; his reception there, 106; made inspector-general of forces in West Indies, and raised to rank of general in America and lieutenant-general in the army, 107; receives £3000 to cover past outlays, 107; appointed governor of Canada, in succession to Carleton, 113; visits Yverdun, 113, 116; his reception at Quebec, and at Montreal, 117, 119; receives news of a treaty between France, Spain, and the revolted colonies, 124; fortifies post on Carleton Island, 124; his distrust of French-Canadians, 127, 128; issues letters of marque, 130; improves mail service with England, 131; his report to Lord George Germaine, 132-143; his policy with the Indians, 147, 259; opens letter addressed by Guy Johnson to Germaine, 155; reprimanded, 156; his efforts to keep peace between rival officers, 157-159; prohibited trading by officials, 162; on the value of Indian allies, 164; negotiates with Washington for Henry Hamilton's release from prison, 169; his later opinion of Indians in battle, 170; disapproves the savagery of Butler's Indians, 170; suspends Allsopp, member of Council, for sedition, 175; surrounded by spies, 175; disagreements with Council, 176-178; prohibits exportation of grain, 177; befriends Ursuline nuns, 179; his rules of conduct, 179; sends back two priests from France, 181; strengthens fortifications of Quebec, 183; causes canals to be made at Coteau du Lac and Cascades, 185; visit to Montreal and benefactions to its institutions, 186; greatly mortified by despatch hinting that, in case of extreme danger, Carleton might be sent to take command, 188; desires to resign his post, 189; concerned at sympathy of leading French-Canadians with the French in the war, 190; takes census, 190; founds library at Quebec, 190; exercises a certain censorship of press, 191; his proclamations, 192; consents to remain in Canada till conclusion of peace, 194; his cautious attitude in connection with the Vermont question, 200, 208, 211, 212; breaks off negotiations, 217; his instructions regarding vaccination, 230; exercises fatherly care over his officers, 236; his opinion of Canadian horses, 245; his resemblance in character to Washington, 250; receives Baron Steuben at Sorel, 259; declines to surrender western forts, 260; assists the North West Company, 261; his advice to home government respecting western posts, 262; opposed to idea of military settlement in eastern townships, 264; efforts on behalf of Loyalists, 265; the founder of Ontario, 271; his unpopularity, 273; has to grapple with treasonable intrigues, 273-282; admissions in his favour by French-Canadian authorities, 291, 292; the kindness of his disposition, 293-296; godfather to two of Baron Riedesel's children, 296, 299; his physical ailments, 299; his garden at Quebec, 299; his regard for the Riedesels, 299-304; his departure from Canada, 309; arrested at suit of Du Calvet, 310; bailed by his nephew, 311; receives Order of the Bath, 313, 322; promoted to be general in America, 313; his papers in the Archives in Ottawa, 319; Dr. Brymner's opinion of, 320; his diary, 321; the king's high regard for him, 321, 322; the queen's, 322, 336; characteristics, 323-329; his opinion of Lord Amherst, 326; on friendly terms with Lord Sydney, 326; his hospitality to Canadians, 327; meets Sir Guy Carleton, in London, 330; his opinions of various persons, 332, 333; notes from his diary, 333-340; poor opinion of the French, 335; goes to Switzerland, 336; returns to London, 337; his death, 340; his will, 340-343; memorial tablet to, in Westminster Abbey, 346; his devotion to British interests, 347. Bk His able administration of the government of Canada, 37; first canals made under his orders, 48. Dr His valuable papers, 7; news received of his appointment as governor, 183; his unwillingness to accept post, 183; arrival of, 189; exchange of prisoners made by, 207. E Constructs St. Lawrence canals, 97.
   Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada; Lucas, History of Canada; Bradley, The Making of Canada; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Haldimand Papers (Canadian Archives).

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